The Black Oak Grove Church was organized in 1834, and the Oakland Baptist Church was organized in 1837. On May 8, 1841 these two churches held a joint session and voted unanimously to unite and become the Mossy Creek Baptist Church. Soon after that, they acquired land and built their first church building on the east side of Mossy Creek and to the south of the stagecoach road.

From 1861 to 1867 church meetings were few and erratic due to the Civil War. Union troops occupied the church building and it was almost destroyed. The congregation met in Mossy Creek Baptist College buildings following the war. Toward the end of this period an attempt was made to build a new church on the current site of Sarah Swann Dormitory. However, the kiln to burn bricks on that site failed.

In 1881, the congregation completed a new church building on George Street in Carsonville. The next year the church voted twice to change its name and became the First Baptist Church of Jefferson City. The George Street structure was sold to a Methodist congregation in 1907, and the congregation moved into a new building on the corner of Russell and King Streets.

The Federal Government paid restoration for Civil War damages in 1915, and a new Moller Pipe Organ was purchased two years later with additional funds from Mr. Andrew Carnegie and voluntary contributions. The Thales L. Butler Memorial Educational Building was dedicated in 1938.

Growth of the church led to the construction of another new building in 1962. The congregation used both buildings until 1978, when the older building was torn down. A new educational building was dedicated in 1983. The 1962 structure burned in 1985, and the congregation had to meet in the Carson-Newman College auditorium until the present building was completed in 1988.